Asexual Reproduction in Plant - Artificial Vegetative Reproduction - Modern Method

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Topics

  • Modern method
  • Advantages and disadvantages of moden method

Notes

Modern Method:

Professor F.C. Steward (1932) of Cornell University showed that the mature phloem parenchyma cells removed from the carrot were placed in a suitable medium under controlled conditions, could be stimulated to start dividing again to produce a new carrot plant. These cells were described as totipotent. The genetic ability of a plant cell to produce the entire plant under suitable conditions is said to be totipotency. This characteristic feature of a cell is utilized in horticulture, forestry, and industries to propagate plants. The growth of plant tissue in a special culture medium under suitable controlled conditions is known as tissue culture.

  1. Micropropagation: The regeneration of a whole plant from a single cell, tissue, or small pieces of vegetative structures through tissue culture is called micropropagation. This is one of the modern methods used to propagate plants.

Advantages of modern methods:

  1. Plants with desired characteristics can be multiplied rapidly in a short duration.
  2. Plants produced are genetically identical.
  3. Tissue culture can be carried out in any season to produce plants.
  4. Plants which do not produce viable seeds and seeds that are difficult to germinate can be propagated by tissue culture.
  5. Rare and endangered plants can be propagated.
  6. Disease-free plants can be produced by meristem culture.
  7. Cells can be genetically modified and transformed using tissue culture.

Disadvantages of modern methods:

  1. It is labour intensive and requires skilled workers.
  2. Sterile condition must be maintained which adds to the cost.
  3. Since the clones are genetically identical, the entire crop is susceptible to new diseases or changes in environmental conditions that will wipe out the species.
  4. Sometimes, callus undergoes genetic changes which are undesirable for commercial use.
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