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Applications of Ultrasound - SONAR

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Applications of Ultrasound:

The ultrasound waves are the sound waves with high frequency. Due to this, they can travel long distances despite any obstacles between their paths.

  • The ultrasound waves are used in clearing parts of objects that are hard to reach such as a spiral tube or electronic components. In order to clean the objects, they are put in a solution, then the ultrasonic waves are passed through the solution. As a result, the dust particles on the object get detached and fall off them.

 

  • Ultrasound waves can recognize tiny cracks in metallic objects that are used in the manufacture of large structures, buildings and scientific equipment. The presence of such cracks can lower the strength of these structures and machines. Hence, the ultrasound waves are passed through the metallic objects and detectors are used to detect the waves that pass through the cracks. If a crack is present the ultrasound waves would reflect back.

 

  • Utrasonic waves are also used in a medical process called Echocardiography. In this process, the ultrasound waves are passed through various parts of the heart in order to form the images of the organ.

 

  • Ultrasonic waves are also used in a procedure called Ultrasonography. In this procedure, the ultrasonic waves are passed through the internal organs of the body in order to get their image. In this way, the doctors can find out the cause of a disease or any abnormalities in the organs. The ultrasound waves travel through the tissues of the body and as soon as the density of the tissue changes they reflect back. The reflected waves are then converted into electrical signals which form the images of the internal organs.

 

  • Ultrasound waves are also used to break the kidney stones.

 

SONAR:

This device is used to find the distance, direction and speed of objects that are present under the water. It uses Ultrasonic waves to do so.

  • The Sonar consists of two main devices – The transmitter and the detector (or receiver). The main function of the transmitter is the production and transmission of the Ultrasonic waves in water.

  • As these waves travel underwater, they, when hit by an object, reflect back to the detector. The detector then converts these sound waves into electrical signals which are then interpreted.

  • The distance of the object is calculated with the help of the speed of sound in water and time taken by the way to reach the detector. This process is called Echo Ranging.

  • The detector converts the ultrasonic waves into electrical signals which are appropriately interpreted. The distance of the object that reflected the sound wave can be calculated by knowing the speed of sound in water and the time interval between transmission and reception of the ultrasound.

  • Let the time interval between transmission and reception of ultrasound signal be t and the speed of sound through seawater be v. The total distance, 2d travelled by the ultrasound is then, 2d = v × t.

    Uses of Sonar

  • Finding the depth of a water body such as sea

  • Detecting the presence of underwater objects like submarines, hills, icebergs and ships

Ultrasonic in Bats:

Bats generate Ultrasonic waves. As these waves hit an object, they get reflected back to the bat’s ears. The bats can understand the nature of reflection of these waves and then can decide the position of the object over their prey.

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Shaalaa.com | Ultrasound

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