Animal Husbandry (Livestock) - Poultry Farming

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Topics

  • Poultry Farming
  • Poultry Feeding
  • Poultry Disease
  • Poultry product
  • Uses of Poultry Farming
  • Poultry management

Notes

Poultry Farm Management: 

  • Poultry is the class of domesticated fowl (birds) used for food or for their eggs. 
  • They typically include chicken and ducks, and sometimes turkey and geese. 
  • The word poultry is often used to refer to the meat of only these birds, but in a more general sense, it may refer to the meat of other birds too. 
  • Broilers (e.g., Plymouth rock) are poultry birds raised solely for meat, layers are for egg production, cockerel are immature male fowls, and roosters are adult male fowls. 
  • White leghorn, Red Rhode Island, Plymoth rock, New Hampshire, Sussex, Barre Plymoth, Austraiorp, Light, Minoreha, and more exotic breeds are available. 
  • The most common poultry bird is the domestic fowl (Gallus domesticus). 
  • Poultry farming is done mainly for:
  1. Getting eggs through layers
  2. Getting chicken meat through broilers

Components of poultry farm management:

  • Selection of disease-free and acceptable breeds.
  • Proper and safe conditions of the farm.
  • Proper feed and water.
  • Hygiene and health care of the birds.
  • The poultry birds are housed in cages that are dry, comfortable, and properly ventilated.

Examples of Poultry Birds:

  1. Indigenous (Desi) or Indian breedsAseel, Ghagus, Karaknath, Brahma, Bursa, Black Bengal, Chittagong, Tellicherry, and others. 
  2. Foreign breeds: Leghorn, Black Minorca.

Crossbreeding is a way to achieve this. Generally, foreign breeds of chicken are crossed with Indian breeds to achieve high quality. It thus has better traits such as:

  • Increase in the number of chicks.
  • They can tolerate high temperatures.
  • They do not require much maintenance
  • They can survive cheap diets

Egg and broiler production:

1) Broiler Chicken:

  • Poultry Birds are grown and used for Meat production called Broilers. e.g. Plymouth rock
  • Broilers are fast-growing chickens that are usually male but can also be female. Fresh and frozen broilers are available after dressing (removal of feathers, head, and feet). 
  • They need a diet with high-quality of Vitamins A and K, proteins, and fats.
  • They need special care to maintain feathering and avoid death.
  • Proper hygiene and temperature conditions should be provided for the broiler chicken.
  • Indigenous (Desi) or Indian breeds of domestic fowl (gallus gallus) include the Aseel, GhagusKaraknath, Brahma, Bursa, Black Bengal, Chittagong, Tellicherry, and others. 
  • The best game bird is the assel, which is used in cockfighting. 
  • Indian breeds develop slowly, convert inefficiently, and produce fewer eggs (60 per year). 
  • Cross-breeding has resulted in high-nutritive value broilers (meat-producing birds) (heterosis). 

2) Layers Chicken:

  • Poultry Birds are grown and used for egg production called Layers. e.g. Leghorn. 
  • They do not require such a nutrient-rich diet.
  • They just need a controlled diet.
  • The layers require more space and lightning as compared to the broilers.
  • HH 260 lays over 260 eggs per year and has a low mortality rate. 

Poultry Disease:

Disease Control methods should also be adopted against the diseases that are generally caused by bacteria, fungi, and parasites in broilers and layers. Disinfectants can be sprayed regularly to avoid such diseases. Sometimes deficiency in nutrition can also need to diseases. Vaccination is a good way to protect poultry fowl from diseases.

Disease  Causative agent 
Bird Flu  H5 N1
Ranikhet/ New castle  New castle disease virus/NDV
Pollorum (white diarrhoea) Salmonella pullrum 
Aspergillosis aspergillus fumigatus
Coccidiosis  Coccidia protozoans
Mycosis  Candida albicans (yeast)

1) Bird flu (Avian influenza): 

  • Bird flu virus creates a scare in the country drastically affecting the use of eggs & chicken.
  • Bird flu (Avian influenza) is caused by H5 N1 (influenza-A virus) Once an outbreak is detected, the infected chickens are separated from healthy birds & killed (Culling).
 
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