Maharashtra State BoardSSC (English Medium) 9th Standard
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Animal Husbandry (Livestock) - Dairy Farming

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Topics

description

  • Dairy farm management
  • Composition of Cattle Feed
  • Feed Management
  • Improvement of Livestock Development in India
  • Diseases
  • Uses of Dairy Farming

notes

Dairy Farm Management:  

  • Dairy farm management is the management of raising animals for the purpose of producing milk and other dairy products for human consumption. 
  • In this, we deal with processes and systems to increase the yield and quality of milk.
  • Milk yield is primarily dependent on the quality of breeds in the farm. 
  • Selection of good breeds having high yielding potential and resistance to diseases.

1) Cattle Farming:

  • Cattle are used for two reasons -
    (i) They provide milk
    (ii) They work as draught labour in the fields
  • Milch Animals: Animals that provide milk are called Milch Animals.
  • Draught Animals: Animals that work in the fields for irrigation, carting and tiling are called Draught Animals.

Food requirements of dairy animals:

  • Maintenance requirements: The food that is required to keep the animals healthy.
  • Milk production requirements: The food that is needed in the lactation period.
  1. Roughage - contains fibre
  2. Concentrates - contains low fibre but the high nutritional value
  3. Feed Additives - includes food that contains micronutrients that can promote health and milk production

The cattle must be adequately cared for in order for the yield potential to be realized -

  1. Milk production can be enhanced by increasing the lactation period in the cattle.
  2. Cross-breeding of foreign breeds and local breeds can provide cattle with qualities of increased lactation period and resistance to diseases.
  3. Shelters of the cattle should be kept neat and clean in order to keep the cattle healthy.
  4. The cattle should be kept clean and should be provided with a covered shelter that can protect them from harsh weather.
  5. The floor of the shelters is to be kept dry and clean.
  6. The cattle have to be well looked after.
  7. They should have adequate water and be maintained disease free.
  8. The feeding of cattle should be carried out in a scientific manner with special emphasis on the quality and quantity of fodder. 
  9. Besides, stringent cleanliness and hygiene (both of the cattle and the handlers) are of paramount importance while milking, storage, and transport of the milk and its products. 

How to ensure these stringent measures? 

  • Regular inspections, with proper record keeping. It also helps to identify and rectify the problems. 
  • Regular visits by a veterinary doctor. 
  • A non-pituitary hormone stilbestrol induces lactation in cows and is used to increase milk yield. 
Milch breeds
(Milik yielding) 
Drought breeds
(used for labour)
General utility breeds Exotic breeds
(introduced for cross-breeding)
Sahiwal Malvi  Ongole  Jersey 
Gir Hallikar  Kankrej Holestein-Friesian
Deoni  Nagori Mewati (kosi)  Ayrshire
Red Sindhi Khillari Hariana Brown Swiss 

Protecting the Cattle from Diseases:

  • Diseases can lead to a reduction in the production of milk and even the death of cattle.
  • Mainly parasites can affect the health of the cattle. These parasites can be found in the animals or they may attack them externally.
  • The internal parasites generally damage the liver and stomach of these animals. For example, worms and flukes.
  • The external parasites cause skin diseases in cattle.
  • Sometimes bacteria and virus also called several diseases in the cattle.
  • A good way to prevent diseases is vaccination.

2) Sheep (Ovis Aries): 

  • Today sheep are raised in all parts of the world. 
  • They are reached for wool and mutton, mostly in hilly tracts. 
  • Sheep graze on grass and herbs. 
  • High-Quality soft wool shahtoosh is obtained from the animal chiru. (Tibetian antelope pantholops nosgson) 

Breedings of Sheep: 

  • To improve the quality of a sheep cross-breeding experiments are usually done. 
  • For this purpose, a good quality wool yielding or mutton producing sheep is chosen and cross breed with an exotic breed like Dorset, Horn, and Merino.  
  • Breeds-Deccani and nellore breeds are raised only for mutton.
  • Patanwandi provides wool for army hosiery. 

3) Goat (Capra Capra): 

  • It is also called poor man's cows because it yields a small quantity of milk and feeds on a variety of wild plants even prickly ones. 
  • About 19% of the world's goat population occurs in India. 
  • Open barns are used to raise goats.
  • The wild goats of Baluchistan and Sindh are the ancestors of all domesticated goat breeds.
  • A bully goat or a buck is the name given to an adult male goat, whereas a nanny goat or a doe is the name given to an adult female goat.
  • Goats are less susceptible to major illnesses. They have anthrax, goat pox, pleuropneumonia, and foot and mouth disease, among other contagious ailments. The symptoms of sickness are similar to those seen in cows. Goats are prone to parasitic infestation.
  • The fine soft wool called "Pashmina" is the underfur of Kashmir and Tibet goats.

4) Horses: 

  • The horses (Equus cabalus) are non-ruminant, solid-hoofed quadrupeds with a long, pendant mane and tail that are covered in long hair.
  • Horses have a low reproduction rate when compared to other animals. For a long time, controlled natural mating of horses has been practiced in India. 
  • Race horse raising, training, and medical care necessitate a high level of professional ability.
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