Reproduction in Lower and Higher Plants
- Reproduction in Plant
- Mode of Reproduction in Plant
- Asexual Reproduction in Plant
- Vegetative Reproduction
- Natural Vegetative Reproduction
- Artificial Vegetative Reproduction - Conventional Method
- Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
- Pre-fertilization in Plant: Structure and Events
- Pre-fertilization in Plant: Stamen (Male Reproductive Unit)
- Pre-fertilization in Plant: Microsporangium
- Structure of Microspore Or Pollen Grain
- Pre-fertilization in Plant: Pistil (Female Reproductive Unit)
- Pre-fertilization in Plant: Megasporangium
- Pre-fertilization in Plant: Formation of Embryo Sac
- Self Pollination (Autogamy)
- Cross Pollination
- Cross Pollination
- Agents of Pollination
- Outbreeding Devices
- Pollen Pistil Interaction
- Double Fertilization and Triple Fusion in Plant
- Post Fertilisation in Plant: Structures and Events
- Development of Endosperm
- Post Fertilization in Plant: Development of Embryo (Embryogeny)
- Formation of Seed and Fruit
Reproduction in Lower and Higher Animals
- Reproduction in Animal and Human
- Mode of Reproduction in Animal
- Asexual Reproduction in Animal
- Sexual Reproduction in Animals
- Human Reproductive System
- The Male Reproductive System
- The Female Reproductive System
- Menstrual Cycle (Ovarian Cycle)
- Fertilization in Human
- Embryonic Development in Human
- Implantation in Human
- Pregnancy in Humans
- Placenta (Growth) in Human
- Parturition (Birth) in Human
- Lactation in Human
- Reproductive Health
- Population Stabilisation and Birth Control
- Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP)
- Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)
Inheritance and Variation
- Gregor Johann Mendel – Father of Genetics
- Genes and Genetic
- Mendelian Inheritance - Mendel’s Laws of Heredity
- Back Cross and Test Cross
- Deviations from Mendel’s Findings
- Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance
- Chromosomes - The Carriers of Heredity
- Linkage and Crossing Over
- Autosomal Inheritance
- Sex Linked Inheritance
- Sex Determination
- Genetic Disorders
Molecular Basis of Inheritance
Origin and Evolution of Life
- Origin and Evolution of Universe and Earth
- Theories of Origin of Life
- Chemical Evolution of Life (Self-assembly Theory of the Origin of Life)
- Darwin’s Theory of Natural Selection
- Mutation Theory
- Modern Synthetic Theory of Evolution
- Mechanism of Organic Evolution
- Hardy Weinberg’s Principle
- Adaptive Radiation
- Evidences for Biological Evolution
- Geological Time Scale
- Origin and Evolution of Man
Plant Water Relation
- Plant Water Relation
- Properties of Water
- Water and Mineral Absorption by Root
- Characteristics of Roots for Absorbing Water
- Water Available to Roots for Absorption
- Means of Transport in Plants
- Concept of Imbibition
- Simple Diffusion
- Concept of Osmosis
- Osmotic Pressure
- Facilitated Diffusion
- Turgidity and Flaccidity (Plasmolysis)
- Active Transport
- Passive Transport
- Water Potential (ψ)
- Path of Water Across the Root
- Translocation of Water (Ascent of Sap)
- Translocation of Mineral Ions
- Transport of Food
- Kinds of Transpiration
- Structure of Stomatal Apparatus
- Significance of Transpiration
Plant Growth and Mineral Nutrition
- Plant Growth
- Phases of Plant Growth
- Conditions Necessary for Plant Growth
- Plant Growth Rate
- Types of Plant Growth
- Plant Growth Curve
- Differentiation, De-differentiation, Re- Differentiation
- Plant Development
- Plant Plasticity
- Plant Hormones
- Types of Plant Hormones: Auxins
- Types of Plant Hormones: Gibberellins
- Types of Plant Hormones: Cytokinins
- Types of Plant Hormones: Ethylene
- Types of Plant Hormones: Abscisic Acid (ABA)
- Vernalization (Yarovization)
- Plant Mineral Nutrition
- Nitrogen Cycle
Respiration and Circulation
- Organs of Respiratory Exchange
- Human Respiratory System
- Breathing – Respiratory Cycle
- Regulation of Respiration
- Modified Respiratory Movements
- Disorders of Respiratory System
- Transportation in Living Organisms
- Types of Blood Circulation
- Types of Blood Circulation
- Blood Circulatory System in Human
- Composition of Blood: Plasma (The Liquid Portion of Blood)
- Composition of Blood: Red Blood Cells (Erythrocytes)
- Composition of Blood: White Blood Cells (Leukocytes)
- Composition of Blood: Blood Platelets (Thrombocytes)
- Function of Platelets - Clotting of Blood (Coagulation)
- Human Heart
- Circulation of Blood in the Heart: Cardiac Cycle
- Blood Vessels – Arteries, Veins, and Capillaries
- Blood Pressure (B.P.)
- Electrocardiogram (ECG)
- Lymph and Lymphatic System
Control and Co-ordination
- Control and Co-ordination
- Nervous System in Hydra
- Nervous System in Planaria (Flatworm)
- Neural Tissue
- Neuron (Or Nerve Cell) and Its Types
- Neuroglial Cells (Or Glial Cells)
- Neuron as Structural and Functional Unit of Neural System
- Nerve Fibres
- Transmission of Nerve Impulse
- Human Nervous System
- Central Nervous System (CNS)
- The Human Brain
- Central Nervous System (CNS): Structure of Human Brain
- The Spinal Cord
- Reflex and Reflex Action
- Reflex Arc
- Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
- Sensory Receptors
- Human Eye: Structure of the Eye
- Working of the Human Eye
- Human Ear
- Disorders of Nervous System
- Human Endocrine System
- Human Endocrine Glands
- The Hypothalamus
- Pituitary Gland or Hypophysis Gland
- The Pineal Gland
- Thyroid Gland
- Parathyroid Gland
- Thymus Gland
- Adrenal Gland (Suprarenal Gland)
- Pancreas (Islets of Langerhans)
- Reproductive Glands (Gonads)
Human Health and Diseases
- Defence System in Our Body: Immune System
- Types of Immunity
- Vaccination and Immunization
- Structure of Antibody
- Categories of Disease
- Protozoan Diseases
- Helminthic Diseases
- Bacterial Diseases
- Viral Diseases
- Fungal Diseases
- Vector Borne Diseases
- Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD)
- Drug Abuse
Enhancement of Food Production
- Improvement in Food Production
- Plant Breeding
- Tissue Culture
- Single Cell Protein (SCP)
- Animal Husbandry (Livestock)
- Animal Breeding
- Dairy Farming
- Poultry Farming
- Apiculture (Bee Farming)
- Pisciculture (Fish Farming)
- Lac Culture
- Microbes in Human Welfare
- Microbes in Industrial Production
- Microbes in Sewage Treatment
- Microbes in Energy Generation
- Microbes as Biocontrol Agents
- Microbes as Biofertilizers
Organisms and Populations
- Organisms and the Environment Around
- Habitat and Its Types
- Structure of an Ecosystem
- Adaptations and Its Types
- Population Interactions
Ecosystems and Energy Flow
Biodiversity, Conservation and Environmental Issues
- Levels of Biodiversity
- Patterns of Biodiversity
- Biodiversity Current Scenario
- Loss of Biodiversity
- Conservation of Wildlife
- Biological Diversity Act, 2002
- Environmental Issues
- Air Pollution and Its Causes
- Effects of Air Pollution
- Prevention of Air Pollution
- Noise Pollution
- Measures to Limit Noise Pollution
- Water Pollution and Its Causes
- Effects of Water Pollution
- Prevention of Water Pollution
- Green House Effect
- Preventive Measures of Green House Effect
- Global Warming
- Preventive Measures of Global Warming
- Ozone Layer Depletion
- Deforestation and Its Causes
- Mission Harit Maharashtra
Excretion and Osmoregulation
- Dairy farm management
- Composition of Cattle Feed
- Feed Management
- Improvement of Livestock Development in India
- Uses of Dairy Farming
Dairy Farm Management:
- Dairy farm management is the management of raising animals for the purpose of producing milk and other dairy products for human consumption.
- In this, we deal with processes and systems to increase the yield and quality of milk.
- Milk yield is primarily dependent on the quality of breeds in the farm.
- Selection of good breeds having high yielding potential and resistance to diseases.
1) Cattle Farming:
- Cattle are used for two reasons -
(i) They provide milk
(ii) They work as draught labour in the fields
- Milch Animals: Animals that provide milk are called Milch Animals.
- Draught Animals: Animals that work in the fields for irrigation, carting and tiling are called Draught Animals.
Food requirements of dairy animals:
- Maintenance requirements: The food that is required to keep the animals healthy.
- Milk production requirements: The food that is needed in the lactation period.
- Roughage - contains fibre
- Concentrates - contains low fibre but the high nutritional value
- Feed Additives - includes food that contains micronutrients that can promote health and milk production
The cattle must be adequately cared for in order for the yield potential to be realized -
- Milk production can be enhanced by increasing the lactation period in the cattle.
- Cross-breeding of foreign breeds and local breeds can provide cattle with qualities of increased lactation period and resistance to diseases.
- Shelters of the cattle should be kept neat and clean in order to keep the cattle healthy.
- The cattle should be kept clean and should be provided with a covered shelter that can protect them from harsh weather.
- The floor of the shelters is to be kept dry and clean.
- The cattle have to be well looked after.
- They should have adequate water and be maintained disease free.
- The feeding of cattle should be carried out in a scientific manner with special emphasis on the quality and quantity of fodder.
- Besides, stringent cleanliness and hygiene (both of the cattle and the handlers) are of paramount importance while milking, storage, and transport of the milk and its products.
How to ensure these stringent measures?
- Regular inspections, with proper record keeping. It also helps to identify and rectify the problems.
- Regular visits by a veterinary doctor.
- A non-pituitary hormone stilbestrol induces lactation in cows and is used to increase milk yield.
(used for labour)
|General utility breeds||Exotic breeds
(introduced for cross-breeding)
|Red Sindhi||Khillari||Hariana||Brown Swiss|
Protecting the Cattle from Diseases:
- Diseases can lead to a reduction in the production of milk and even the death of cattle.
- Mainly parasites can affect the health of the cattle. These parasites can be found in the animals or they may attack them externally.
- The internal parasites generally damage the liver and stomach of these animals. For example, worms and flukes.
- The external parasites cause skin diseases in cattle.
- Sometimes bacteria and virus also called several diseases in the cattle.
- A good way to prevent diseases is vaccination.
2) Sheep (Ovis Aries):
- Today sheep are raised in all parts of the world.
- They are reached for wool and mutton, mostly in hilly tracts.
- Sheep graze on grass and herbs.
- High-Quality soft wool shahtoosh is obtained from the animal chiru. (Tibetian antelope pantholops nosgson)
Breedings of Sheep:
- To improve the quality of a sheep cross-breeding experiments are usually done.
- For this purpose, a good quality wool yielding or mutton producing sheep is chosen and cross breed with an exotic breed like Dorset, Horn, and Merino.
- Breeds-Deccani and nellore breeds are raised only for mutton.
- Patanwandi provides wool for army hosiery.
3) Goat (Capra Capra):
- It is also called poor man's cows because it yields a small quantity of milk and feeds on a variety of wild plants even prickly ones.
- About 19% of the world's goat population occurs in India.
- Open barns are used to raise goats.
- The wild goats of Baluchistan and Sindh are the ancestors of all domesticated goat breeds.
- A bully goat or a buck is the name given to an adult male goat, whereas a nanny goat or a doe is the name given to an adult female goat.
- Goats are less susceptible to major illnesses. They have anthrax, goat pox, pleuropneumonia, and foot and mouth disease, among other contagious ailments. The symptoms of sickness are similar to those seen in cows. Goats are prone to parasitic infestation.
- The fine soft wool called "Pashmina" is the underfur of Kashmir and Tibet goats.
- The horses (Equus cabalus) are non-ruminant, solid-hoofed quadrupeds with a long, pendant mane and tail that are covered in long hair.
- Horses have a low reproduction rate when compared to other animals. For a long time, controlled natural mating of horses has been practiced in India.
- Race horse raising, training, and medical care necessitate a high level of professional ability.
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