Marine Fisheries and Inland Fisheries
Fish can be obtained in two ways:
From Natural Resources - Capture Fishing
From Fish Farming - Culture Fishing
Marine fishes are caught using fishnets and mechanical capturing techniques.
The main source of marine fishes is marine water or salt water.
Generally, large numbers of fishes can be captured at a time through mariculture.
For Example, tuna, Bombay duck, prawns
Fishes found in lakes, ponds, lagoons and rivers are captured.
The main source of Inland fisheries is freshwater and brackish water.
The yield is not as high in these sources hence large numbers of fishes are captured through aquaculture.
For Example, silver carp, common carp
Aquaculture: It is a method of farming aquatic animals under controlled circumstances. It is performed in both freshwater and saltwater bodies.
Mariculture: It is a branch of aquaculture hence a method of fish farming under control environment. Mariculture is often performed in the ocean, a particular section of the ocean or in the tanks that are filled with seawater only.
Composite fish culture
In a composite fish culture, fishes are grown along with rice crop in the paddy fields.
In this method, a combination of 5 - 6 local as well as foreign fishes is grown in a single pond.
Such species are selected because they have different food habits and would not compete for the food with each other.
Some of them are surface feeders; some are middle zone feeders while others are bottom feeders.
They would rather eat all the food in the pond.
As a result, the fish yield in the pond increases
For Example, Catlas (surface feeders), Rohu (middle feeders), Mrigal (bottom feeders), Common Carps (bottom feeders), Grass Craps (aquatic weed eaters) are often grown together in composite fish culture.